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This proposal linking sea ice to the global ocean system focuses on the following key questions: (1) What is the significance of sea-ice physical and biogeochemical processes on atmosphere - ocean fluxes of climate gases (CO2, DMS, CH4, N2O) and fluxes of matter (carbon, macro- and micro-nutrients) to the water column? (2) Can we reconstruct paleo-sea ice extension based on sedimentary records and sound knowledge of sea-ice biological and physico-chemical processes? (3) How are formation rate, composition, lability and sinking speed of marine biogenic particles related to planktonic community structure and trophic interactions and how do margin systems open ocean and sea-ice covered systems, which differ in Fe availability, compare? (4) What are the physical and ecosystem conditions and pathways that lead either to shallow remineralisation or to deep export of organic matter produced in sea-ice and surface waters? (5) What is the impact of these processes on water column nutrient ratios and nutrient distribution in the Global Ocean?